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Shaheedee of Sarblohee Jathedaar Baba Gurbaksh Singh Jee
Posted by: admin (IP Logged)
Date: December 02, 2009 06:13AM

Today is the Shaheedee Divas of Jathedaar Baba Gurbaksh Singh Jee. History of Shaheedee in our Panth is a great and long one but one of the most glorious pages is the Shaheedee of Jathedaar Baba Gurbaksh Singh Jee.

When a Hatee Tapee Japee Rehatvaan GurSikh sacrifices his life, his Shaheedee causes changes in destiny, his ardas is heard in all spheres and realms.

Baba Jee’s Shaheedee changed the balance of play, Sikhs began once again to rule the plains of Panjab. Oh and what a Shaheedee it was, the enemy never recovered from such a show of Bravery. The Sarblohee Jathedaar with his 30 Singhs only armed with Talvaars and Sticks took on the might of Abdali’s Imperial Army. You will find it hard to find an equal of this in History.

This bravery brought such fear into the hearts of the enemy that it broke them, how could so few cause so much damage?

Kazi Noor Mohammad was a witness to this battle and it is he who gives the figure of 30 Sikhs in his Jangnama. He too can not help but pay praises to their bravery and courage.

You really couldn’t see the Khalsa of the Shaheedan Jatha do any thing else. Their whole life was devoted to doing seva of Guru Asthans. They regularly shifted base from Anandpur Sahib, Damdama Sahib and Akaal Bunga – Guru Ke Chak. There was no way Jathedaar Baba Gurbaksh Singh Jee was going to let Abdali do beadbi of Darbar Sahib while he had swass left in him.

Below is the account of Baba Jee’s Shaheedee, I’ve edited it slightly and included some original lines from Pracheen Panth Prakash’s text. I’ve also added a brief mention of Shaheed Singhs, Ratan Singh Bhangoo goes into greater detail about this but I haven’t.
Most historians don’t mention this at all as they don’t see this as factual. I however thought readers might find it interesting and they can make their own minds up. Who knows there were a lot of Chardi Kalan wale Gursikhs of that time who may have witnessed something and passesd it on.

Shaheedee of Sarblohee Jathedaar Baba Gurbaksh Singh Jee
Taken From Pracheen Panth Parkaash by Rattaan Singh Bhangoo
Translated by Admin www.tapoban.org



Baba Gurbaksh Singh jee was a very well known and respected Singh, who had the honour of being martyred while defending Sree Darbaar Sahib.

Baba jee was of village Leel and had received amrit at Sree Amritsar Sahib, due to the inspiration of Bhai Manee Singh jee.

About Baba Jee

Baba Gurbaksh Singh was always dressed in blue baaNaa and kept a very strong rehit. He would awake at amrit vela and do ishnaan and while reciting baaNee, would tie his dumalla. Baba jee loved Sarbloh, he would offer his respect to his sarbloh shastars i.e. kirpans, chakars, toRaas (metal cable tied around dastaar), kaRas, etc and then put them on. He would finally put on a mala of sarbloh around his neck and also many sarbloh kaRas and simarnaas. Baba jee's dastaar also had many toRaas tied into it. He would also wear a sarbloh armour.

ਸਵਾ ਪਹਿਰ ਨਿਸ ਕਰੈ ਸ਼ਨਾਨ I ਬਾਣੀ ਪੜ੍ਹੇ ਖੜ ਪੱਗ ਬਧਾਨ I

ਸਰਬ ਲੋਹ ਕੀ ਪੂਜਾ ਕਰੈ I ਨਮਸਕਾਰ ਕਰ ਸ਼ਸਤਰ ਫੜੈ I੩I

ਸਰਬ ਲੋਹ ਗਲ ਮਾਲਾ ਪਾਵੈ I ਕੰਗਣ ਸਿਮਰਨ ਲੋਹ ਸੁਹਾਵੈ I

ਲੋਹ ਚਕ੍ਰ ਲੋਹ ਤੋੜੇ ਧਾਰੈ I ਸਰਬ ਲੋਹ ਕੀ ਰਖਯ ਉਚਾਰੈ I੪I

Other features Panth Parkash mentions about the way Baba jee looked was that he wore a very long 1.5 yard kacherra and always kept a long stick with him.

Every amrit vela then, after dressing himself in his baaNaa, Baba jee sat in the divaan at Sree Akaal Takhat Sahib. It did not matter who came to meet him, whether a powerful Sardar or a lowly peasant, he greeted all people in the same way and with the same respect. He had absolutely no worldly aspirations or greed.

Whenever there was a battle, Baba jee would always go and confront the enemy. He would take the Nishaan Sahib himself and advance. With the beat of the nagara, Baba jee used to be in the forefront to confront the enemy.

Abdali's Oppression and the Khalsa Scatters

The Khalsa had scattered when Ahmed Shah Abdali brought his army through the Punjab. Some Singhs went to the mountains where they were looted by the mountain-people; others went and hid around the rivers where they were not only looted but also attacked by lions and other animals. Those Singhs who decided to stay in Majha and not retreat were turned over to the Afghans by traitors and informers. In Malwa, the Singhs also fared no better and had to go from house to house like beggars.

At Sree Amritsar, the Sarbat Khalsa gathered one day and after the night divaan, decided to abandon Sree Amritsar and leave together for Malwa.

Baba Jee Offers His Shaheedee

Baba Gurbaksh Singh then rose and addressed the Singhs and said, "Is there any Singh in the Panth today, who would fight with the Afghans and sacrifice his head and then go to Dargah and with his sacrifice have Karta-Purakh listen to his request and ensure the Chardi Kala of the Panth? One who could do ardaas to Karta-Purakh and bring an end to these dark days? Is there any Singh who is so determined and is such a devotee of naam and one who is so strong in rehit? Is there anyone who will give his life for the rest of the Khalsa and with his sacrifice be able to wipe out the enemy?" [It is said that when the enemy kills a bhagat of Vahiguru, the bad karma of committing such an act results in the enemy also being wiped out. Baba jee was asking if there was such a bhagat in the Panth who could give such a sacrifice].

"ਹੈ ਕੋਉ ਸਿੰਘ ਇਸ ਪੰਥ ਮਝਾਰੀ I ਲਾਇ ਸੀਸ ਕਰੈ ਦਰਗਹਿ ਪੁਕਾਰ I ਸੋ ਪੁਕਾਰ ਉਸ ਮੰਨੈ ਕਰਤਾਰ I੨੩I
ਹਠੀਆ ਤਪੀਆ ਜਪੀਆ ਜੋਇ I ਰਹਤਵਾਨ ਸਚਿਆਰ ਭੀ ਹੋਇ I

The Singhs listened to Baba Gurbaksh Singh and replied, "Baba jee, is there any Singh better for this than you? There is no one with more kamaiee. No one else has the power to abandon their body and go to Dargah like you do. No one else's request will be more acceptable to Vahiguru than yours."

Baba jee listened to these words and then bowed his head and agreed to the request.

Baba jee then called out, "I want to be Shaheed! If there is any other Gurmukh who wishes to come with me to Dargah, then let them also come. When there is a marriage, the groom goes with his Sarbaalha (best man) and with a large baraat (marriage party). I am going to marry the bride of Death. Are there Singhs who would be my Sarbaalhas?"

Hearing Baba jee's call, many Singhs rose and stood with Baba jee. They said, "We were waiting for your call. With your permission we will be your Sarbaalhas."

Seeing these Singhs stand, many more Singhs also rose and said "then we all will come with you in the baraat!"

Baba jee then adressed all the Singhs and said, "Khalsa jee! You have all agreed to join my wedding party. We will give our heads in this Dharam Yudh and in this way we will be married. We will get Shaheedee and Guru Sahib will give us all Kingships. No, even bigger rewards than kingships. That Singh who gives his head in battle will be the King of Kings. "

The Singhs Prepare for The "Wedding"

By this time, Ahmed Shah Abdali had arrived in Lahore. He was preparing to go to Delhi when he heard about the gathering of the Khalsa at Sree Amritsar. He decided that on the way to Delhi, he would stop at Sree Amritsar and slaughter all the Sikhs.

Hearing of the advance of Abdali, some of the cowards who had remained at Sree Amritsar with Baba jee ran away. Baba jee also encouraged them to leave and said "Go! Leave now, otherwise we won't let you leave later!"

Only a few Singhs remained now. The remaining Singhs were all chardee kala naam abhyaasee Gursikhs. They prepared for their death like a groom prepares for his wedding. They all had new cholas sewn. Some decided to sew blue, and others wore white and others kesree. They gathered in front of Sree Akaal Takhat Sahib and eagerly awaited the enemy.

ਬਸਤਰ ਸ਼ਸਤਰ ਪਹਿਰ ਸਿੰਘ ਭਏ ਤਬੇ ਸਵਧਾਨ I ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਬਾਣੀ ਪੜ੍ਹੀ ਗੁਰ ਨਾਨਕ ਪਗ ਧਰ ਧਯਾਨ I੩੭I

They would stand on their toes to see if the enemy was yet visible on the horizon. They were discussing how they would give their Shaheedees and then in Dargah would stop the Afghan attacks forever.

The day the Afghans were expected to attack, the Singhs all rose at amrit vela. They began to prepare like it was their wedding day. They sprinkled themselves with attar and rose scents, and rubbed sandal paste on their bodies. As they did this, they sang "GhoReeaa(n)" shabads from Sree Guru Granth Sahib. They then bathed in Sree Amritsar Sahib and then gathered at Sree Akaal Takhat.

Baba jee was looking very impressive in his new dress. He was wearing a blue chola over his new kacherra and was wearing a very tight dumalla, which was tied especially for battle. The dumalla had many chakars and kirpaans tied into it. The Singhs then gathered and offered obeisance to Sree Guru Granth Sahib. After reading 5 pauRees of Anand Sahib and doing ardaas

The Singhs distributed Degh and then as a group left for darshan of Sree Darbaar Sahib.

The group of Singhs was led by a Nishaan Sahib and nagaaras were beating. Baba jee asked the Singhs to sing shabads of happiness as this was their wedding day and the wedding party was now moving. Baba jee and the other Singhs also gave away all the money they had to the needy. They arrived at Sree Darbaar Sahib and did parkarma. Once inside, they showered Sree Guru Granth Sahib with flowers and then did Ardaas. Baba jee standing before Satguru Granth Sahib spoke the following words, "True Emperor, protector of the poor! Your Khalsa is going now to marry the bride of Death. We are going to battle the Dushts. Satguru jee! May our Sikhee and our kesh stay intact through our final breaths."

ਹਰਿਮੰਦਰ ਕੇ ਹਜੂਰ ਇਮ ਖੜ ਕਰ ਕਰੀ ਅਰਦਾਸ I “ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਸਿੱਖੀ ਸੰਗ ਨਿਭੈ ਸੀਸ ਕੇਸਨ ਕੇ ਸਾਸ I੪੮I”

The Afghans in the meantime had began to move towards Sree Amritsar. They had prepared for a massive battle and brought a large army. They were wearing armour and metal helmets. They had decided to do battle in such a way that the Singhs would be killed but they themselves would incur minimal casualties. They had brought long weapons which could kill from a distance such as large guns.

Baba jee, after offering ardaas at Sree Darbaar Sahib, returned with the Singhs to Sree Akaal Takhat Sahib to listen to keertan and await the enemy. The keertanees began to recite keertan and the Singhs would ask that certain shabads they wanted to hear be sung. The GhoReeaa(n) shabads were again recited. In this way, the entire night passed in listening to keertan. At day break, the enemy had arrived.

The Afghans Arrive & The Battle Begins

The Singhs upon seeing the Afghan army came down from Sree Akaal Takhat Sahib. They bowed to their shastars (kirpaans, kataars and talwaars) and then grabbed them. Some Singhs grabbed very big sticks and others mounted horses. The Singhs vied to go ahead of each other and kept moving forward. The Singhs argued about who had the right to attain Shaheedee first. The Nishaan Sahibs were furling and the beat of nagaaraas was echoing. The Singhs were like grooms anxious to marry a beautiful wife and seeing the time come closer, becoming more and more excited.

Some Singhs then ran forward and began the battle. The Singhs would sprint forward and began to embrace Shaheedee and complete their weddings with death. The Singhs were surrounded on all four sides and the Afghans began to close in. Baba jee called out to all the Singhs, "Singhs! Step forward and embrace martyrdom! “ਹੋ ਸ਼ਹੀਦ ਪਗ ਅੱਗੈ ਧਾਰ I੫੭I”
If we step forward, our honour remains intact, if we step back, they will say we are retreating! Do not look for assistance anymore, just go forward! Now go forward and give your heads!" .

Hearing Baba jee's cry, the Singhs all charged forward, not one Singh took a step back.

ਹੋਹੁ ਸ਼ਹੀਦ ਅਬ ਹੈ ਦੇਰ ਕਹੀ I੬੫I ਤੌ ਲਗ ਗਿਲਜੋ ਔਰ ਆਇ ਪੜੇ I ਲੜ ਲੜ ਮਰੈ ਜਹੀਂ ਸਿੰਘ ਅੜੇ I ਨਾਂਹਿ ਪੈਰ ਕਿਨ ਪਿੱਛੈ ਮੋਰਾ I ਸਿੰਘਨ ਪੈਰ ਸੁ ਅੱਗੈ ਤੋਰਾ I੬੬I

They fell upon the Afghans like a lion on deer. The Singhs were all eager to become Shaheed as quickly as possible. They had no hope for life.

Baba jee again called out, "Khalsa jee! Become Shaheed and cross this world-ocean! Let us go to the court of Satguru jee and ask that the Afghans never attack here again and that the Khalsa should rule! What is the delay now? Fall upon the enemy!"

Wherever the Singhs stood their ground against the Afghans, they eventually fell. Afghan reinforcements also arrived. The Singhs never looked back, some Afghans even began to run away. Seeing this, Baba jee bellowed, "Don't let them go Khalsa jee! Stand and fight this Dharam Yudh!"

The Afghans did not understand what Baba jee was saying and were surprised to the see the Singhs run after them. They then trained their guns upon the Singhs. Many Singhs standing with Baba jee fell to the rain of bullets. Baba jee then took out his heavy Tegha and ran towards the enemy. He swung his Tegha with such force that it cut through the armour of the Afghans. Baba jee would aim for the face and neck where there was less armour. The Afghans all then began to cover their faces with their shields.

The Singhs seeing the cowardice of the Afghans threw aside their own shields and challenged, "look! We've thrown aside our shields, do you have the bravery to do the same? We'll take your blows without any shield, will you take ours?"

The Singhs continued to run forward and did not show any fear of death. They did not so much as look backwards. The Afghans continued to fall back and began to wonder why such a small group was not finishing and whether these few Singhs would cause their defeat. They could not bear the brunt of the Singhs' sword blows. They fell back and began to fire bullets and arrows.

Baba Jee's Shaheedee

Baba jee's body was pierced by many bullets and arrows and his wounds could not be counted. Some cut through his skin and others broke bones. But neither did the Singhs accept defeat nor would they acknowledge any pain. Baba jee's body was pouring blood like a spring. But Baba jee kept moving forward and was demanding Shaheedee and asking Guru Jee to keep his Laaj

"ਪੈਜ ਬਿਰਦ ਕੀ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਰਾਖੈ I ਲਾਜ ਨ ਲਾਗੇ" ਯੌ ਸਿੰਘ ਆਖੈ I "ਹਇ ਸ਼ਹੀਦੀ ਮੇਰੀ ਪੂਰੀ"I ਬਾਰ ਬਾਰ ਸਿੰਘ ਮੰਗੈ ਜ਼ਰੂਰੀ I੭੭I

Baba jee was soaked in blood like he had just been playing Holi with colours. Eventually because of loss of blood, Baba jee became very weak. He could not walk anymore and became very tired. But with every ounce of strength in his being, he put one foot ahead of the other. He was careful that no one would say he retreated.

"ਮਤ ਕਤ ਆਖੈ ਜਗਤ ਕੋ ਸਿੰਘ ਮੁਯੋ ਮੁਖ ਫੇਰ ਪਿਛਾਹਿਂ I੮੦I

Baba jee called to the remaining Singhs, "Singhs! Do not shame the BaaNaa we wear! May our Shaheedees be perfect and may we fall in the battlefield!"

By this time, even more Afghan reinforcements arrived. The new Afghans surrounded the wounded Baba jee and pierced him with their long spears. Baba jee with great effort used his khanda to cut off the spears and the Afghans again fell back. Baba jee would not look back but the enemy had surrounded him and knocked him to the ground from behind with a blow from a spear. Baba jee fell to his knees. Baba jee thought in his mind, "I cannot let go of my khanda. If I let it go, the enemy may consider me helpless and not attack.

I will not be able to become Shaheed and my wish will not be fulfilled. If I do not take care of this moment, who knows if I ever get the opportunity for Shaheedee again?"

Baba Jee kept fighting even after falling on his knees and never let go of his Talvaar

ਸਿੰਘ ਸੁ ਗਿਰਯੋ ਗੋਡਨ ਕੇ ਭਾਰ I ਤਊ ਨ ਛੋਡੀ ਸਿੰਘ ਤਲਵਾਰ I ੮੧I

Baba jee then again raised his khanda and called to the Afghans, "Come! Try to take my head!" He put his head forward like an offering. Again the enemy surrounded him and fighting on his knees, Baba jee was beheaded by the enemy and in this way attained Shaheedee.

ਅਬ ਧੜ ਤੈ ਸੀਸ ਉਤਰਾਈਐ ਕੋਇ ਝਲ ਤਿੱਖੀ ਤਲਵਾਰ I ੮੨I

Baba jee's vow was completed , he offered his Sis in the same fashion as Sree Guru Tegh Bahadur Jee.

ਦਯੋ ਸੀਸ ਉਨ ਆਗੈ ਨਿਵਾਇ I ਜਿਮ ਤੇਗ ਬਹਾਦਰ ਗੁਰ ਕੀਓ ਦਾਇ I੮੩I

Shaheed Khalsa

The enemy rejoiced at the Shaheedee of Baba Gurbaksh Singh jee and shouted out slogans in relief. The Khalsa too rejoiced at the Shaheedee of Baba jee in its own way. Shaheed Khalsa was waiting in anticipation of Baba Gurbaksh Singh Jee.

ਸ਼ਹੀਦਨ ਕੈ ਮਧ ਭਈ ਵਧਾਈ I ਹੁਤੇ ਉਡੀਕਤ ਗੁਰਬਖਸ਼ ਸਿੰਘ ਭਾਈ I

Baba Gurbaksh Singh jee was received in Grandeur and carried on royal carriage with Shaheed Khalsa wearing Blue and holding Nishan Sahibs and Nagarey.

ਨਿਸ਼ਾਨ ਨਿਗਾਰੈ ਸ਼ਹੀਦਨ ਫੜੇ I ਨੀਲੇ ਬਾਣੇ ਪਹਿਰ ਸੁ ਖੜੇ I ੮੬I

The Aftermath

Night fell and the Afghans were in shock after seeing such a bloody battle. They set up camp near the Bhangi fort and fell into a deep sleep. The Singhs in the area though rose at night and attacked the camp. The Singhs stole horses and slaughtered the Afghans. The remaining Afghans could not sleep and at daybreak, quickly ran from the area.

The same night, some Singhs came to the scene of the battle to see what had happened. They saw the headless bodies of the Singhs and many many Afghans. The Singhs decided to make one big pyre and cremate all the bodies together. Behind Sree Akaal Takhat Sahib, a lot of wood was gathered and all the bodies were cremated together. Degh was distributed and the Singhs celebrated as though a great wedding had taken place. The whole Panth was saying Dhan Dhan

ਧੰਨ ਧੰਨ ਪੰਥ ਸਭੋ ਉਸ ਆਖੈ I ਮਾਤ ਪਿਤਾ ਸਭ ਧਨ ਉਸ ਭਾਖੈਂ I

The Khalsa decided to erect a Shaheed Ganj in memory of Baba Gurbaksh Singh and the rest of the Singhs. This place was seen by many to have a very strong presence of Kala and nothing would seem to come near it.

ਐਸੀ ਕਲਾ ਉਸ ਜਗਾ ਹੋਈ I ਭੂਤ ਦਰਸ ਤਹਿਂ ਰਹੈ ਨ ਕੋਈ I

http://img686.imageshack.us/img686/8697/sisganjbaba.jpgGurdwara Sis Ganj still stands today at that place

Baba jee's Shaheedee was glorious and indeed, the Afghan power did begin to fall after this point. The Panth believed that Baba Jee’s benti was heard at the feet of Guru Jee, within a few years, the Sikhs began to rule Punjab and the Sikh Kingdoms were established.

ਜਬ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਬਚ ਸਿੰਘ ਲਏ ਮੰਨ I ਤਬ ਹੀ ਭਯੋ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਧੰਨ I੧੦੫I


Re: Shaheedee of Sarblohee Jathedaar Baba Gurbaksh Singh Jee
Posted by: Sukhdeep SIngh (IP Logged)
Date: December 02, 2009 08:45PM

Wow! What a great account. This should be made as an inspirational sticky, and other stories about Shaheed Singhs should be added.


Re: Shaheedee of Sarblohee Jathedaar Baba Gurbaksh Singh Jee
Posted by: IApple (IP Logged)
Date: December 04, 2009 10:12AM

I always enjoying reading Baba Gurbaksh Singh Jees Sakhee

hYUu tUk tUk j`uJy sbY pwv n pwCY fwrIAM ]
haioo ttook ttook jaujhae sabai paav n paashai ddaareean |
Despite their bodies having been chopped, (all of them) kept fighting the war and none of them retreated even a single step.

jYkwr Apwr suDwr huAM bwisv lok isDwrIAM ]50]
jaikaar apaar sudhaar huan baasiv lok sidhaareean |50|
They achieved an immeasurable and resounding victory with wholesomeness and departed this life to proceed to heaven.(50)

Ang 123 Siree Dasam Granth Sahib Jee


Re: Shaheedee of Sarblohee Jathedaar Baba Gurbaksh Singh Jee
Posted by: admin (IP Logged)
Date: December 09, 2009 05:50AM

Sukhdeep Singh, I will eventually put up all the Shaheedee Sakhian under one thread as a Sticky.

If Guru Jee allows I want to first put up one or two new Shaheedee posts before I finish off and call it a day. This is the intention but who knows what Guru Jee will allow.


Re: Shaheedee of Sarblohee Jathedaar Baba Gurbaksh Singh Jee
Posted by: Sukhdeep SIngh (IP Logged)
Date: December 09, 2009 02:08PM

Thanks Administrator Sahib.

You can also add the Shaheedi of Guru Sahib (/webform/read.php?1,6158) and [www.tapoban.org] that was posted not long ago.Also bhai Taru Singh Ji which was recently added( [www.tapoban.org]).

I remember Bhai Kulbir Singh Ji also posted an inspiration thread on Bhai Mani Singh Jis shaheedi .

Some other inspirations shaheedi stories of Puratan Singhs can be Baba Deep Singh Ji, Bhai Mati Das Ji, Bhai Sati Das Ji. While recent ones can include Bhai Fauja Singh Ji, Bhai Anokh Singh Ji, Bhai Amrik Singh Ji etc.


Re: Shaheedee of Sarblohee Jathedaar Baba Gurbaksh Singh Jee
Posted by: ਖਾਲਸਾ (IP Logged)
Date: December 10, 2009 01:37AM

I think its important to mention the names of some of the 30 Gursikhs who took Shaheedee in this Saka. Giani Gian Singh in his version of Panth Prakash writtten in 1878/80 has recorded the following names

Maan Singh

Basant Singh

Nihal Singh

Dyal Singh

Natha Singh

Anak Singh

Mohar Singh

Ajit Singh

Jeevan Singh

Ranjit Singh

Maha Singh

Nahar Singh


Re: Shaheedee of Sarblohee Jathedaar Baba Gurbaksh Singh Jee
Posted by: 13khalsa (IP Logged)
Date: December 18, 2009 02:00PM

Kazi Noor Muhammed was an eye witness to the battle of Amritsar in which Baba Gurbaksh Singh Jee took Shaheedee. This battle had a profound effect on him and this is relayed in his writings. Below is an example of this :

Kazi Noor Muhammed on the Sikhs in Jang-Nama
Taken form "Sikh History from Persian Sources" by JS Grewal & Irfan Habib p. 208

Do not call the Sikhs 'dogs'. They are in fact lions: in the battle-field they are courageous like bold lions. How could a warrior who joins the battle roaring like a lion, be compared with a dog? If you wish to be proficient in learning their manner of fighting it is such that one and all praise them for it. O swordsman, if you wish to learn the art of war, learn it from them, as they face the enemy like heroes and also get out of the scene of action safely. You know, their title is 'Singh'. It is not just to call them 'dogs'. O young man, if you do not know the Hindi language, I tell you 'Singh' means 'lion'. Truly, they are like lions in battle, but surpass Hatim in generosity in social gatherings. As they pick up their Indian sword, they overrun the entire country from Hind to the country of Sind. No one however strong he may be, can stand up to them in battle. By putting their hands to the use of spear, they bring about the defeat of the enemy's army. They raise the heads of their spears to the sky and even if there is Caucasus in their way, they would pierce through it. When they adjust the bowstrings of their Turkish bows and fit into them the enemy-killing arrows and as the strings of the bows are pulled up to their ears, the enemy's body strikes its head against the mile tower (an allusion to the practice of building towers of the severed heads after a battle).

When their battle-axes strike the suits of armour, these turn into knots on the enemies' bodies. The body of each one of them is like a piece of rock, grander in appearance than those of fifty men of the enemy put together….During the battle if these weapons (viz., spear, bow and arrow and battle-axe) are exhausted, they take out the muskets and enter the field galloping and raising battle cries like roaring tigers. Often they expose their chests by removing the protective covers, many of the allow their blood to flow and mix with the blood spilled on the earth. You say that this musket is present since old, being the invention of the Sikhs and not that of the Sage Luqman. Although there are so many muskets to be had, yet no one is more proficient than them in this art. To the right and to the left, and also in the front and towards the back, they fire a hundred muskets in this manner….This statement is confirmed by the fact that thirty of them engaged thirty thousand troops during the battle (of Amritsar under Baba Gurbaksh Singh Shaheed).

If their armies take flight, do not take it as an actual defeat because this is only a battle tactic of theirs. Beware, beware of them again, because this tactic of theirs is aimed at scattering the enemy in the excitement of pursuit…then they turn back to face their pursuers and set fire to even water…

Leaving aside their mode of war, hear you of another aspect that distinguishes them among warriors. At no time do they kill one who is not a man. Nor would they obstruct the passage of a fugitive. They do not plunder the wealth and ornaments of a woman, be she a well-to-do lady or a maidservant. There is no adultery among the Sikhs, nor are these people given to thieving. Whether a woman is young or old, they tell her "Budhiya, go and occupy a corner." The wordy 'Budhiya' in Hindi language means 'old woman'. No thief is to be found among these Sikhs, nor is a housebreaker present among them…If you are not conversant with their religion, I should tell your honour that the Sikhs are the disciples of a Guru, and the fortunate Guide had lived at Chak. The ways and practices of these people are derived from Nanak who showed to the Sikhs a separate path. His last successor was Gobind Singh, form whom they received the title 'Singh'. They are not from amongst the Hindus. These miscreants have a distinct religion of their own. Since you have obtained some knowledge of the conduct of the Sikhs, now hear of their country: they have divided up Punjab among themselves, giving it to every man, old or young.


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